Saturday, September 18, 2021

Barry Ritholtz - The Economic Risks from Anti-Vaxxers

States with lots of antivaxxers will feel it in their pockets as their economies dive. 

Fox News mandates vaccines, but this is never mentioned in its broadcasts, or that Rupert Murdoch got vaccinated. 

Vaccinations have become politicized: The AntiVaxxers of the past few decades were founded on a debunked belief linking Vaccines and Autism.

Thanks to Q-Anon, Fox News, OANN, NewsMax (and others), large swaths of the population now believe that Vaccines are problematic.

What was once a bizarre and self-destructive movement has become during the pandemic a full-blown public health threat.

Even worse, every unvaccinated person is a chance for the virus to mutate again. The unvaccinated are “variant factories.” They do more than risk their own health and safety — they put the lives of everyone in the community at greater risk. after vaccine administration. We later learn that Wakefield was funded by litigants against vaccine manufacturers, a detail he failed to disclose.

The modern Anti-Vaxxer movement of recent years traces its origins to a paper published in The Lancet in 1998 by (then Dr.) Andrew Wakefield linking 12 children who developed autism soon after vaccine administration. We later learn that Wakefield was funded by litigants against vaccine manufacturers, a detail he failed to disclose.

Barry Ritholtz - The Economic Risks from Anti-Vaxxers

Rick Newman - How the unvaccinated threaten the economy

New masking rules How the unvaccinated threaten the economy vaccine mandates will intensify the debate over Americans’ right to behave foolishly. But they also highlight the economic cost of refusing vaccinations.

 Rick Newman - How the unvaccinated threaten the economy

Jonathan Cook Gets Vaccine Research All Wrong

 Jonathan Cook put out an article today about how covid vaccines are leaky, which could promote dangerous mutations. He tweeted research that was done by Professor Andrew F. Read and his colleagues. 

I replied straight away debunking Cook when there were only a few comments, so he must have seen my tweet. I got only one like, but my tweet completely demolished his article. There are only 37 replies to Jonathan Cook's tweet, and he replied to a number of people, but completely ignored mine up to this point. I decided not to push it in case I get blocked 

When Joe Rogan quoted the same research Professor Andrew F. Read got very angry about it. 

Joe Rogan Is Getting This Completely Wrong,’ Says The Scientist Who Conducted The Vaccine Study

More transmission increases the likelihood of mutation. Thankfully, COVID-19 Vaccines reduce transmission and reduce opportunity for mutation.

“Joe Rogan is getting this completely wrong,” says Andrew Read, professor of biology and entomology at Pennsylvania State. “He’s taking very careful work about evolutionary scenarios of the future, and from that, erroneously concluding that people should not be vaccinated now.”

 There’s nothing in any of that 20 years work that argues in favor of withholding lifesaving vaccines. It’s just shocking to me.” He adds, “There are 600,000 Americans dead so far. The vast majority of those deaths are vaccine-preventable.

Joe Rogan Is Getting This Completely Wrong,’ Says The Scientist Who Conducted The Vaccine Study

Vaccines slow new variants

The delta variant has spread around the globe, and the next variants are already on the rise. If the goal is to limit infections, vaccines are the answer.

Even though vaccinated people can still get infected with the delta variant, they tend to experience shorter, milder infections than unvaccinated individuals. This greatly reduces the chances of any mutated virus – either one that makes the virus more transmissible or one that could allow it to get past immunity from vaccines – from jumping from one person to another.

What Is Causing All These New Coronavirus Variants? Is It the COVID–19 Vaccines?

Shelton on with Bannon


Shelton on with Bannon this week to discuss the current economic situation under the Biden people… A lot wrong here … they think abstractions are real… banks have a choice to possess regulatory reserves… banks lend out the reserves… much more… And she was nominated to Fed so she is typical of the type of people there and going there..,  MMT complete failure of pedagogy… we’re still in big trouble…

Yahoo Finance - China Evergrande's $300 billion debt causes concerns about a potential collapse

The CPC will soon tame the Evergrande collapse without much problem, says Ed Yardeni. 

Also, he says how the central bankers learnt a lot in 2008, so were able to keep the economy going during this pandemic.

Ed Yardeni, Research President and Chief Investment Strategist, talks the implications of China Evergrande's potential collapse

Friday, September 17, 2021

Sergio M. Focardi - Is economics an empirical science? If not, can it become one?

1Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA

2De Vinci Finance Lab, École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs Léonard de Vinci, Paris, France

We will subsequently discuss why we argue that neoclassical economic and finance theory is not an empirical science as presently formulated—nor can it become one. 

In physics, observables are processes obtained through the theory itself, using complex instruments. Physical theory responds to empirical tests in toto; individual statements have little empirical content. In economics, given the lack of a comprehensive theory, observations are elementary observations, such as prices, and theoretical terms are related to observables in a direct way, without cross validation. This weakens the empirical content of today's prevailing economic theory.

We next critiqued neoclassical economics, concluding that it is not an empirical science but rather the study of an artificial idealized construction with little connection to real-world economies. This conclusion is based on the fact that neoclassical economics is embodied in DSGE models which are only weakly related to empirical reality.

Sergio M. Focardi - Is economics an empirical science? If not, can it become one?

Debt Ceiling Nonsense Yet Again – A Catch 22? — J. Barkley Rosser

But GOP Sen. McConnell is loudly declaring no GOP will support raising it, and has threatened a filibuster, although reconciliation can get around that if all Dems agree. However, even as he is loudly declaring not GOP support for raising the debt ceiling, he is also demanding that it be raised so that government bills get paid. I really have no comment on this further, aside from noting that this is just further evidence on why this silly thing needs to be done away with once and for all.…
Angry Bear
Debt Ceiling Nonsense Yet Again – A Catch 22?
J. Barkley Rosser | Professor of Economics and Business Administration James Madison University

GOP digging in


McConnell not bluffing…. This weeks tax haul pretty high though and TGA + EMs now back up to 490B … and leading spending rate is falling we probably can last into November before “out of money!”….

Thursday, September 16, 2021

Magpie — Australia’s Back-Stabbing Diplomacy.

The US, UK, Canada, and Australia are circling the wagons and everyone else is outside the circle. 

In addition, Australia just pained a big target on itself for China's missiles. Strategic brilliance.

Magpie's Asymmetric Warfare

J. W. Mason' — The Politics of Pay-Fors: A Simple Framework

These debates are in part about economic questions — both what the constraints on issuing new public-sector liabilities (“borrowing”) are in principle, and of how close we are to those constraints in practice. But a second and arguably more important dimension of the debate is political: In a public or legislative debate, what are the advantages and disadvantages of linking proposals for public spending with proposals for increased taxes?

I think it’s useful to think of this second question in terms of the grid of possibilities below....
JW Mason says he is dealing with the political implications rather than the economic ones, but he fails to mention the key political dynamics involved, which have to do with class struggle within capitalism, political agendas of parties and factions, media propaganda, social conditions, public opinion, ignorance, and copious bullshit.

OK, I get that he is doing something else but why beat around the bush. The par-for nonsense is just that. It's contrived for political advantage.

According to MMT there is no actual basis for linking spending and taxation since taxation is unnecessary as a pay-for and these operations are separate considerations. The link rather is economic and social conditions that both may affect but that has nothing to do with pay-fors. 

MMT prefers dealing with fiscal matters as far as possible with automatic stabilizers rather than directly through budgeting anyway. Budgeting should be based on priorities, with targeted spending according to priority and taxation aimed at inflation control and addressing externality, including economic rent.  Budgeting can be and should be be used for targeting, using both, which monetary policy cannot do since it is a shotgun approach.

It's an interesting toy model though and worth a look.

J. W. Mason's Blog
The Politics of Pay-Fors: A Simple Framework
JW Mason | Assistant Professor of Economics, John Jay College, City University of New York

Jack Power - Hospital group ‘gravely concerned’ over Covid-19 misinformation

 There's something wrong with these people. 

Medical staff can be heard in the video warning the patient about the risks of leaving the hospital, stating they were worried about his condition. File photograph: Alan Betson/The Irish Times 

Medical staff can be heard in the video warning the patient about the risks of leaving the hospital, stating they were worried about his condition. File photograph: Alan Betson/The Irish Times. 

Saolta Healthcare Group has said it is “gravely concerned” by a number of recent incidents in which groups of activists have attempted to spread disinformation about Covid-19 at hospitals.

In recent days a Covid-19 patient was encouraged to leave Letterkenny General Hospital by an activist, who filmed the interaction in the hospital, with the video later posted on social media.

In the video, the activist said he was “rescuing” the man, and falsely claimed treatment in the hospital would “kill” the patient.

Medical staff can be heard in the video warning the patient about the risks of leaving the hospital, stating they were worried about his condition.

One staff member told the man that leaving the hospital would risk “endangering” his life. “It’s a very difficult disease that you have, and I’m not lying to you, you could die, but this could be your best chance in the hospital,” the staff member told the patient.

A source confirmed the incident took place in the Donegal hospital in recent days.

Irish Times

Jack Power - Hospital group ‘gravely concerned’ over Covid-19 misinformation

UK pledges to restore pounds and ounces as Brexit benefit

 Oh well, so much for the metric system, it looks like we are going to go back to the silly imperial system. 

Boris Johnson’s government has promised it will pass legislation to allow British traders to sell their wares in pounds and ounces, rather than grams and kilograms, as it revealed plans to seek a liberalization dividend from Brexit.

The restoration of old imperial weights, long demanded by Brexit supporters who resented the imposition of metric measures by Brussels, was among the top potential benefits of the UK leaving the European Union listed on Thursday by Lord David Frost, the minister responsible for implementing Brexit. from the European Union.

UK pledges to restore pounds and ounces as Brexit benefit

Professor Jayati Ghosh - Mainstream Economics & Gender | #5 | Feminist Economics

 Professor Jayati Ghosh says if more women economists had been successful in getting to the top of the profession economics would have been very different. Present neoclassical economies is very wealthy white male dominated, and so tends to emphasise competition over cooperation, and exploitation of the environment rather than trying to conserve and preserve it for the longer and common good. 

In this fifth and final lecture in the Institute for New Economic Thinking’s “Feminist Economics” series, Professor Jayati Ghosh explores some of the shortcomings of mainstream economics. Heavily reliant on unrealistic assumptions and stylized models, mainstream economics has a narrow approach which often descends into trivial pursuits. Mainstream models tend to propose policies which are are not very relevant and sometimes even pernicious.  Economics remains a male-dominated profession concentrated in the Global North, limiting its outlook.  Prof. Ghosh urges economics to expand its scope and vision, and outlines several areas where economic policy can and should be adjusted to incorporate a gender-perspective and better address the particular challenges of developing countries.  This includes incorporating into general economic policy consideration of relational time, counter-cyclical macroeconomic policy, reforming taxation regimes, and ensuring price stability of necessities and food security, which are areas that especially affect women.  Prof. Ghosh also proposes micro policies beneficial to women, like reforming banking regulations and laws to enable financial inclusion, unionization, and the minimum wage.  Prof. Ghosh finally considers the "Green New Deal", and proposes to expand it to a "Multi-colored New Deal" to address a wider range of inequalities. Gender equality is not only good in itself, but also essential for the long-term viability of societies and economies.

The Truth About A&W's Third-Pound Burger and the Major Math Mix-Up

In the 1980s, then-owner A. Alfred Taubman launched the "Third is the Word" campaign to promote A&W's new third-pound burgers to compete with  McDonald's quarter-pounder for the exactly the same price, but it bombed! Why? Americans thought they were getting a bad deal because three is a SMALLER number than four. Math education is important! It also shows you why the metric system is better than imperial. 

A&W Restaurants

The Truth About A&W's Third-Pound Burger and the Major Math Mix-Up

Links — 16 Sep 2021

Reminiscence of the Future
Understanding Is Good.
Andrei Martyanov, expert on Russian military and naval issues. Martyanov was born in Baku, USSR in 1963. He graduated from the Kirov Naval Red Banner Academy and served as an officer on the ships and staff position of Soviet Coast Guard through 1990. He took part in the events in the Caucasus which led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. In mid-1990s he moved to the United States where he currently works as Laboratory Director in a commercial aerospace group. He is a frequent blogger on the US Naval Institute Blog. He is author of Losing Military Supremacy, The (Real) Revolution in Military Affairs, and Disintegration: Indicators of the Coming American Collapse — Clarity Press

War with Russia & China would ‘destroy world’ & America must find ways to make peace with its Eastern rivals, top US general warns

Asia Times
China’s meteoric nuclear rise prompts call for talks
Dave Makichuk

Counterpunch (The US is good at this)
The Dangerous Exaggeration of the Threat
Melvin Goodman

History’s Light on the Dark Road Ahead
Carol Polsgrove

Russia to preserve its superiority in hypersonic weapons — Deputy PM Borisov

Lavrov points to NATO’s infrastructure closing in on Union State’s borders

Pentagon Paid the Arms Industry at Least $4.4 Trillion Since 9/11

The Sociological Eye
COLLAPSE OF THE TUTORIAL-PROXY STATE: AFGHANISTAN 2021, PHILIPPINES 1942, VIETNAM 1975 AND OTHERSRandall Collins | Dorothy Swaine Thomas Professor of Sociology, Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania

Saudi Arabia Is Eyeing Russia’s S-400 As Replacement For US THAAD & Patriot Systems – Report

Fair Competition? U.S. Ruins $90Bn Sale Of French Submarines To Australia

Patrick Armstrong, retired analyst and diplomat (2008) serving in the Canadian Department of National Defence specializing in the USSR/Russia from 1984 and a Counsellor in the Canadian Embassy in Moscow in 1993-1996.

Putin's unveiling of monument to Alexander Nevsky on NATO frontier shows how Russia believes real threat comes from West, not East
Paul Robinson | Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Ottawa

The Long, Slow Death of the Free Market — Blair Fix

Summary of a paper.

Economics from the Top Down
The Long, Slow Death of the Free Market
Blair Fix

China’s ‘Mass Line’ Moves Online — Cai Tianji

More on Chinese governance, in addition to polling public opinion and experimenting with pilot projects.

China's governance system may not be "democratic" in the Western liberal sense, but it is attuned to the people because therein lies "the mandate of heaven."

Sixth Tone
China’s ‘Mass Line’ Moves Online
Cai Tianji

Alexander Zinser - Angela Merkel

Being of German nationality, I am proud of our Chancellor, Mrs Angela Merkel.  The first female chancellor of Germany and has been variously described as the “de facto” leader of the European Union and the most powerful woman in the world.

Angela Merkel was chosen by Germans to be their Chancellor in 2005. For over 16 years she showed a great example of leadership with skill, dedication and sincerity.

In those sixteen years of power, there were no rebellions in her country. She did not appoint any of her relatives to a state position. She did not claim to be a creator of glory. 

Germany will say goodbye to its leader, physicist and quantum chemist, who was not tempted by fashion or lights and did not buy real estate, cars, yachts and private jets. She will leave her post after leaving Germany at the top. She will leave and her loved ones claim no benefits.

For sixteen years, she never changed the style of her wardrobe. At a press conference, a journalist asked Merkel: ''We realize that you are wearing the same suit, don't you have another?» She replied: «I am a civil servant, not a model.»

In another press conference, they asked her: "Do You have a housewife cleaning your house, preparing food, etc." Her response was: "No, I have no servants or need them. My husband and I do this work every day at home." 

Then another journalist asked: "Who is doing the laundry, you or your husband?" Her response was: "I'm fixing the clothes and my husband is the one who runs the washing machine."

Ms. Merkel lives in a normal apartment like any other citizen. She lived in this apartment before being elected Chancellor of Germany. She did not leave it and she does not own a single villa, houses, pools, gardens. 

Angela Merkel, the chancellor of Europe's largest economy, will always remain a great example of leadership, driven by values, selfless principles, facts and empathy.

Female Leadership!


Elon Musk's Wealth Compared To Everything | Data On Data - Insider News

I have nothing against Elon Musk, who, on the whole, seems to be a fairly amicable person, but is there a problem with the system? The maga rich don't really do this for the money, they do it for the prestige and because they enjoy it, which wouldn't be any different if the tax system was changed. 

Elon Musk is currently the second richest person in the world. Between April 2020 and April 2021 Elon Musk made $383m per day on average. We took those numbers and compared them to everything from McDonald's to Kazakhstan in order to put his obscene wealth into context. 

So to get a better understanding of this graph it really helps to know what this worth actually is. Musk’s wealth is made up mostly of the stocks he owns, the majority of them in Tesla. In fact if you draw a graph of Tesla’s stock over the top of his wealth you can see it’s almost exactly the same.

Elon Musk's Wealth Compared To Everything | Data On Data - Insider News

Will the BRICS Ever Grow Up? — Jim O’Neill

 Jim O'Neil treats the political dynamic and geopolitics as irrelevant to global economics, which includes ignoring the key role that the US and UK are playing in this dynamic, precluding the economic cooperation he recommends, as the US and UK intend in order to maintain and extend Anglo-American hegemony.

Project Syndicate
Will the BRICS Ever Grow Up?
Jim O’Neill, a former chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management and a former UK treasury minister, is a mem

Class conflict and economics — David F. Ruccio

Is class conflict returning to economics? David Ruccio refers us to Michal Kalecki's political aspects of full employment in his response to Martin Sandau.


Occasional Links & Commentary
Class conflict and economics
David F. Ruccio | Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Notre Dame

Bill Mitchell — Australian labour market in dire straits

At present, the pandemic is causing massive fluctuations in the labour force aggregates to the point that it is very difficult to know more than that things a bad even when conventional indicators would normally be moving in a direction that would lead to the opposite conclusion. Today (September 16, 2021), the Australian Bureau of Statistics put out the latest – Labour Force, Australia – for August 2021. The background is that the entire East Coast is in or has been in lockdown over the last few months and for the two largest labour markets (NSW and Victoria) that lockdown has been very tight. The August 2021 data reveals that the longer NSW lockdown is now impacting heavily on employment growth. Employment, working hours, and participation are now falling sharply and we have the situation where unemployment and the unemployment rate is falling because the labour force is declining faster than employment. Of course that just means that the workers who would normally have been counted as officially unemployed as they lost jobs are now outside the labour force – and we consider them to be hidden unemployed. Their participation decline is because employment opportunities have collapsed. The more stable ratio – the Employment-to-Population ratio fell by 0.8 points in August, which is a massive shift for one month. The situation will get worse in September. So while the unemployment rate might be falling the situation is dire. The lack of any significant stimulus from the federal government is telling. There is now definite evidence that further and rather massive fiscal support is required. The lack of support is one reason low-paid workers in high infection rate areas are still mobile – looking for work etc and spreading the virus further....
Bill Mitchell – billy blog
Australian labour market in dire straits
Bill Mitchell | Professor in Economics and Director of the Centre of Full Employment and Equity (CofFEE), at University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

Wednesday, September 15, 2021

Bill Mitchell — Monetary policy is not effective in dealing with a pandemic – it must support active fiscal policy

It’s Wednesday and I have now settled back into my office after being stuck away from home for 9 weeks as a result of border closures between Victoria and NSW. So I am reverting back to the usual Wednesday pattern of limited writing, although today, the topic is worthy of some extended narrative. Before we get to the swamp blues music segment, I am analysing a speech made by the RBA governor yesterday on the role of monetary policy during a pandemic, whether low interest rates are driving house prices too high, and, what should be done about that. The conclusion is that he supports better use of fiscal policy – sustaining supportive fiscal deficits and dealing with the distortions that are contributing to high housing prices, via amendments to taxation (eliminating incentives for high income earners to buy multiple properties) and public infrastructure policies (more social housing)....

Bill Mitchell – billy blog
Monetary policy is not effective in dealing with a pandemic – it must support active fiscal policy
Bill Mitchell | Professor in Economics and Director of the Centre of Full Employment and Equity (CofFEE), at University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia

MMT Applies to Both Growth and Degrowth — Peter Cooper

Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) can be applied to growing economies. Equally, as Jason Hickel rightly observes, MMT is also an appropriate macroeconomic framework for proponents of degrowth. The theory makes clear that a currency-issuing government always has the capacity to maintain full employment through implementation of a job guarantee, irrespective of the overall level of aggregate demand or rate of economic growth. As currency issuer, the government faces no financial barrier, nor has any need of profit. Whereas employment in an economy left to the whims of for-profit firms slumps whenever demand slumps – not least because private firms as currency users are financially constrained and subject to the profit criterion – currency-issuing governments have the capacity to maintain full employment at all times....

MMT Applies to Both Growth and Degrowth
Peter Cooper

Jason Hickel
Jason Hickel | Visiting Senior Fellow at the International Inequalities Institute at the London School of Economics; Professor at the Institute for Environmental Science and Technology at the Autonomous University of Barcelona;  Associate Editor of the journal World Development, and serves on the Statistical Advisory Panel for the UN Human Development Report, the advisory board of the Green New Deal for Europe, and the Harvard-Lancet Commission on Reparations and Redistributive Justice. 


Industrial Policy’s Comeback
Market fundamentalism has failed to improve economic and social conditions. Now, we need a mission-oriented approach to the economy that embraces an active role for government in spurring growth and innovation.

Today it is precisely those “market mechanisms” that appear not to have delivered on their promise. An equally exhaustive review of the experience of several advanced economies during the last few decades—from the 2008 financial crisis, populist challenges to globalization, and vast increases in economic inequality to decaying infrastructure, climate change, and the broader pursuit of short-term profit at the expense of long-term investment—has badly tarnished the reputation of neoliberal market fundamentalism. Under this regime, modern capitalist markets have proven themselves unable to create an even distribution of wealth and income, ecological sustainability, affordable shelter and health care, and a sufficient number of high-quality middle-class jobs. Amidst this policy crisis, industrial policy is making a comeback, shaping high-level discussions at the intersection of trade policy and economic growth on subjects from artificial intelligence to climate change.

Boston Review 

A Just Transition Needs a Job Guarantee — Pavlina Tcherneva

MMT at Project Syndicate!

The right to employment is also included in Article 23 of the UN General Assembly's Universal Declaration of Human Rights!

Project Syndicate
A Just Transition Needs a Job Guarantee
Pavlina Tcherneva | Associate Professor of Economics at Bard College, Research Scholar at The Levy Economics Institute, and Senior Research Associate at the Center for Full Employment and Price Stability

Tuesday, September 14, 2021

Can globalization be “improved”? — Branko Milanovic

In an excellent just-published book “Six faces of globalization” Anthea Roberts and Nicolas Lamp, produce six plausible narratives of globalization and what, according to each, went wrong or right with globalization. Their approach is to take a given narrative, present all its points as its defenders would, with rather minimal outside (i.e. their own) interventions, and in the second part of the book discuss overlaps and differences between these various narratives.

Here, I will review the six narratives, saying perhaps little about each of them explicitly both because they are all rather well known by the general public and because I hope that my critique of each narrative will indirectly throw sufficient light on narratives’ main points.…
Global Inequality
Can globalization be “improved”?
Branko Milanovic | Visiting Presidential Professor at City University of New York Graduate Center and senior scholar at the Stone Center on Socio-economic Inequality, senior scholar at the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), and formerly lead economist in the World Bank's research department and senior associate at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Inflation History Overview (For Some Selected Countries) — Brian Romanchuk

Note: This is a preliminary draft of a section from my inflation primer. It is an overview of the “modern” inflation experience for a few developed countries. I expect to add data and comments for a few continental European and Antipodean countries later.
Bond Economics
Inflation History Overview (For Some Selected Countries)
Brian Romanchuk

Bloomberg - Booster Shots Raise Risk of More Variants, WHO Warns

 Prioritizing booster shots in wealthier nations heightens the risk of Covid-19 variants emerging in nations with lower vaccination rates, the World Health Organization warned. "We're in a very unstable situation," WHO Special Envoy for Covid-19 David Nabarro told Bloomberg Television. "Please let's slow down, look at the world as a whole, and develop a response plan for the whole world and do it properly

Bloomberg - Booster Shots Raise Risk of More Variants, WHO Warns

ICC - Study shows vaccine nationalism could cost rich countries US$4.5 trillion

 A new study commissioned by the ICC Research Foundation has found that the global economy stands to lose as much as $9.2 trillion if govts fail to ensure developing economy access to C19 vaccines, as much as half of which would fall on advanced economies.

International Chamber Of Commerce

ICC - Study shows vaccine nationalism could cost rich countries US$4.5 trillion



Paradox is normal behavior for the Art Degree trained people …. I don’t see a problem here…

Portnoy's wiki says he graduated from Michigan with a degree in education… Michigan’s website says you can go either Bachelor of Art or Bachelor of Science in the Education discipline…  wiki doesn’t say which one Portnoy was awarded with … but Portnoy obviously sees AOC’s Art Degree paradox as hypocrisy…