Sunday, July 23, 2017

Lord Keynes — The 10,000 Year Explosion, Chapter 4: A Summary

Chapter 4 of Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending’s The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution (2009) is called the “Consequences of Agriculture.”
The effects of agriculture accelerated human evolution and selective pressures in the following ways:
Interesting tidbit:
Yet another cognitive trait that may have been selected for in farmers is the ability to defer gratification (Cochran and Harpending 2009: 114). This was an extremely important type of behaviour on which farming is based, and needed for sowing of crops or breeding of animals, when those plants or animals can be eaten in the present. Farmers with personality traits such as delayed gratification, patience, a work ethic, self-control, and long-term planning would have survived to produce more offspring (Cochran and Harpending 2009: 114). Curiously, this would also have bred more selfish people in contrast to hunter gatherers (Cochran and Harpending 2009: 115).
The would bear out Rousseau's assumption over Hobbes.

Conversely, this would speak in favor of Hobbes.
Farming allowed the creation of more advanced state-based societies that developed systems of law and order and punishments. Many such societies have imposed the death penalty for socially-harmful behaviour, as in crimes like murder, violence, and so on. In a stable society over time, this would likely kill off more aggressive individuals (usually men) and leave that society with a gene pool favouring less aggressive and less violent individuals (Cochran and Harpending 2009: 111–112). Some have argued that the high levels of social conformity in East Asian societies are not just a cultural phenomenal, but the result of long-run genetic changes influencing personality arising from the thousands of years of how these state-based societies in East Asia have operated. This raises the interesting possibility that highly developed state societies have “tamed” human beings in certain ways, not just culturally but also genetically (Cochran and Harpending 2009: 112–113), and that in modern agricultural societies (which have had agricultural and state systems for thousands of years), the average man today might be less aggressive and less violent than the average man 2,000 years ago, or 10,000 or 20,000 years ago. People from state-based, agricultural societies – with thousands of years of history – probably have different cognitive traits, on average, as compared with people in hunter-gatherer societies not subject to the same kind of long-term evolutionary change.
Social Democracy For The 21St Century: A Post Keynesian Perspective
The 10,000 Year Explosion, Chapter 4: A Summary
Lord Keynes

29 comments:

Matt Franko said...

"the ability to defer gratification "

aka saving... even the Darwin people can see this...

Matt Franko said...

"the average man today might be less aggressive and less violent"

Don't forget that the wars also kill off many of these people ... look how pussified Germany and Japan are today...

Magpie said...

About Henry Harpending

Harpending is most famous for his book, co-authored with frequent collaborator Gregory Cochran, The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution, which argues that humans are evolving at an accelerating rate, and that this began when the ancestors of modern Europeans and Asians left Africa.(...) He is also a eugenicist who believes that medieval Europeans intuitively adopted eugenic policies, and that we should recognize the importance of eugenics in our own society. Harpending has given talks on these ideas at white supremacist conferences, and is widely celebrated among white supremacists on forums like Stormfront and the Vanguard News Network, who see a champion for their cause behind his academic rhetoric.

https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/henry-harpending


Interesting profile, to be sure. There's, however, a mistake in that summation: he is also celebrated in Social Democracy For The 21St Century: A Post Keynesian Perspective.

There's something rotten in Post Keynesianism. But that is no surprise to me.

Matt Franko said...

Magpie,

You either think Darwin is true or you don't... you can't think Darwin on one hand and then deny something like eugenics on the other...

The 1% are the survival of the fittest this is Darwin 101...

Tom Hickey said...

Interesting discussion in the comments here.

http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2009/01/the-10000-year-explosion.html

Tom Hickey said...

Basically, the debate is between those accepting the Darwinian-New Synthesis evolutionary model who assert that human evolution stopped at a certain point and other than assert that it is ongoing at present.

Way beyond my expertise to comment other than superficially, but the argument is based on the assumption that evolution crystallizes for a species when its niche become stable over time so that further adaptation is superfluous. Then natural selection ceases to operate as an evolutionary factor.

If this is accepted, then the question is whether the environment of humans is stable enough to preclude further adaptation or changes enough to keep the process going. Most people in the field accept this assumption as I understand it.

There seems to me to be adequate reason to entertain the latter hypothesis that that human environment is still changing enough to generate adaptation.

Then the matter become a scientific question that would be decidable base on evidence.

The question is about available evidence and what it implies for theory.

Tom Hickey said...

You either think Darwin is true or you don't

Just as modern physics is based on Issac Newton; so too, evolutionary biology is based on Charles Darwin.

There is no theory in physics other than the Newtonian theory based on Newton's laws and no theory in evolutionary biology other than Darwinian based on natural selection and environmental adaptation.

Just as Newton was not right about everything he investigated — he was an occultist and alchemist — Newton's laws were the basis for the development of modern physics and remain the cornerstone.

Darwin may not have been either comprehensive or entirely correct in everything he said, but natural selection is the basis for modern evolutionary biology.

Obviously, physics has come a long way since Newton and so too, evolutionary biology has come a long way since Darwin.

Key to the progression is that advances in physics — QM and relativity — do not overturn classical physics but show it to be correct within its scope and scale, but other understandings are needed to complement it at different scales.

Similarly, Darwin's natural selection theory fits seamlessly with the genetics of Mendel making evolutionary theory multi-scalar also.

These are not just the best explanations scientifically but the only explanations scientifically. There are no competing paradigms that are consilient with contemporary scientific understanding. Doing "normal science" is in terms of these paradigms and research is geared to extending their horizon.

If new paradigms would emerge, at this point it seems that they would incorporate and extend the existing paradigms rather than overturn them.

jrbarch said...

I always keep in mind that all of physical nature and its ‘laws’ can be transposed to the realm of ‘energy’, along with all of Newtonian and Darwinian theory. That when any lump of matter is transposed to energy, there is an energy surplus beyond the energy consolidated as matter. That the laws of this energy realm command the laws of matter and physical nature; although no one wants to say it out loud. That the ‘self’ when using mind as a tool, can switch genes off and on; remap brain functions to other parts of the brain; rebuild lost motor and sensory, emotional, and mental function. That genius and creativity; the soaring of the human spirit over the mass of men, and the personality life, are inadequately explained – could they be a promise of what lies ahead for all of humanity? That everywhere in life, throughout the ages, against all odds, men feel there must be something more. Born optimists huh?

I don’t think our physicists are really telling us what they are thinking, when the material universe disappears before their gaze. They mumble in their beards or go back to genetics, or the search for subatomic particles and the somewhat ejaculatory hypothesis of a ‘big bang’; or come out with things like the hologram theory, or declare with alarm, the universe does not exist. Some of them have become Buddhists ....

I have no science to demonstrate it, but simple experience teaches me the impetus for the evolution of matter and form, comes from this inner realm, that we in our ignorance and utter childish simplicity label ‘energy’ – an infinite realm totally unexplored by modernity. I am not alone in this experience. We are told evolution comes from the mud. That is because the scientists have their heads stuck in the mud. We dabble only with the outer garment of Life. We think a lump of grey matter produces consciousness and the self. That the self resides in the brain waves. In the Ageless Wisdom the brain is simply a transponder; genetics and neuronal activity are effects – not causes. The whole human personality is simply an outpost of consciousness, a vehicle for consciousness. Evolution of the personality is the evolution of a vehicle whose crowning achievement is to become aware of the consciousness within it – the Self has always been the immediate goal and purpose of all forms. All forms are used to evolve consciousness and all consciousness is used to evolve forms and lift matter. For a while there, it’s a two-way street. Consciousness uses the mind or whole personality if you like, as an ‘eye’ into the physical world, but at this stage of our evolution, this eye is clouded by concepts and ego, based on our inability to lift the eyes to the self. The world drama is an illusion, based on ego; individual, group, national. At this illusion , we toil.

Well, that is the Ageless Wisdom which is just as good as entertaining a theory as mud afaik.

Magpie said...

Oh man, this is just too good to let it pass unnoticed:

Gregory M. Cochran (born 1953) is a research associate at the University of Utah[1] who blogs about human biodiversity (HBD) topics.

Cochran is best known for his frequent collaborations with the late Henry Harpending,[2] considered a white nationalist by the Southern Poverty Law Center.[3]

Despite the fact that he is by profession a physicist, and the fact that he has no hard evidence for his opinions, Cochran appeared to believe he understands the origin of homosexuality far better than most people.[4] Cochran claimed that a "gay gene" is implausible from the point of view of natural selection, and that therefore the phenomenon of male homosexuality is most likely "caused" by a brain-infection, a so-called "gay germ",[5] and/or other pathological damage to the brain.

http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Gregory_Cochran

That ought to do wonders to raise the academic profile of post Keynesianism, after all who could be harmed by associating themselves with that kind of people?

Just imagine the next Poke conference adorned with swastikas and plenty of 1488rs.

On the other hand, maybe that explains Keynes' (the real, not the fake?, one) homosexuality: the guy had caught the gay fever!

wilwon32 said...

Wrt game changers, I recommend that you keep your eye on the efforts of Dr. Randell L Mills, Chairman of the Board, President and CEO Director of the Brilliant Light Power company:

http://brilliantlightpower.com/management/

Dr. Mills's group is currently involved with testing and adjustments of the Sun Power Cell which he has announced plans to bring to commercial fruition/status in 2018. His efforts are described in a book by Brett Holverstott: 'Randell Mills and the Search for Hydrino Energy', available at Amazon.com. Dr. Mills recently presented an update of his efforts over the past 20-25 years at the Fresno State on February 27, 2017:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dCzVUnnL00&feature=youtu.be

Dr. Mills Molecular Modeling software (Millsian) and General Unified Theory of Classical Physics, developed with major financial support from private funders, are awaiting general recognition, though there has been some apparently arrant association with the Cold Fusion crowd which seems to have influenced the physics establishment re recognition of the significance of his efforts.

When Dr. Mills' Sun Cell has passed appropriate tests and been brought out as a commercially available version, it may be time to reconsider the inadequacies of Quantum Mechanics as well as the nature of cosmological phenomena involving 'Dark Matter'.

Ben Johannson said...

There is no evidence human societies are driven by Darwinist motivation. This should be non-controversial, as A) human are very much unlike any other species on the planet, and B) governments have repeatedly attempted to govern on the basis of natural law since Malthus first articulated the Perversity Thesis. All such attempts have ended in failure.

There is nothing natural about accumulating money, as money itself is neither natural nor real. To the contrary hoarding appears to indicate a potential mental defect; humans do not naturally hoard, they share. This is the root cause of the massive social dysfunction which inevitably accompanies capitalist economies as they attempt to force a paradigm of selfishness on a species evolved for selflessness.

Ben Johannson said...

Also, as the 1% are disproportionately born into that status, it isn't an example of survival of the fittest; it's complacent free-riding. What happens to complacent species in the non-human world?

LK said...

Ben Johannson@July 24, 2017 at 6:04 AM
"To the contrary hoarding appears to indicate a potential mental defect; humans do not naturally hoard, they share"

This is false. Farmers probably evolved cognitive traits that made them more likely to hoard scarce food to survive until the next harvest. That is not a "mental defect", but a matter of survival. Hunter gatherers -- having different environments and hence a different long-run evolutionary history -- are more likely to to be driven by evolution to share and be less selfish.

Matt Franko said...

Well all Homo sapiens are born into that status...

Matt Franko said...

"Free riding"

Not everyone becomes a ditch digger....

You guys discount organization and management skills to zero ... they are just as important as the hands on work...

Think about LKs farming example next year's planting has to be estimated and then a specific quantity of seed set aside and not consumed, etc... this is a management requirement...

It's the same with contemporary financial planning and ERISA accounts... people save and make assumptions about receiving passive income for retirement on the accounts via interest, dividends, etc...

LK said...

Magpie@July 23, 2017 at 9:12 PM

"Despite the fact that he is by profession a physicist, and the fact that he has no hard evidence for his opinions.. etc."

First, that Cochran has some weird ideas on homosexuality is irrelevant, because the book doesn't even discuss nor even mention homosexuality. Lost of very good scientists sometimes have absurd or ridiculous views on certain issues, e.g., Newton believed in astrology.

Secondly, that the idea that there "no hard evidence for his opinions" is utter B.S. The book has meticulous citations of the most recent work in genetics and biology by respected scientists. Chapter 2 is now backed up by recent gene sequencing that shows that humans *do* have at least some Neanderthal genes.

As for the other author Harpending, he probably does have some unsavoury connections which I did know of, but, once again, that fact per se refutes NOTHING in the book, but is just a lazy ad hominem fallacy.

The theories in the book -- backed up by plenty of hard scientific evidence -- stand or fall on their merits, not on the political opinions of the authors. You can totally reject Harpending's politics (as I'm sure everybody here does), but recognise that differential human evolution is true.

Finally, it is the height of absurdity to be lectured on morality by some Marxist/Communist like Magpie, whose Marxist ideology killed possibly up to 100 million people in the 20th century.

Tom Hickey said...

Despite the apparent thoroughness of the revolution Mao wrought when he won power in 1949, Goodman says that, based on a survey conducted in six cities across the country, that “about 84 per cent of the contemporary very rich entrepreneurs” — that is, six million people who have incomes of more than 12 times the local average GDP per person — “are the direct descendants, with at least one grandparent, of the immediately pre-1949 elite”. Most come from families that were members of the local elites 67 years ago and also of the communist movement.

The 20 to 30 local elite families who historically dominated social life, wealth, and local politics in each of China’s 2200 counties have largely retained their prominence and wealth.

This underlines that China’s middle class comprises at its core great survivors and adaptors. They are not easy prey to anyone out to make a swift buck.


http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/opinion/rowan-callick/chinas-growing-middle-class-our-megamarket/news-story/b54c6f172420feee64f825c3fac7de63

Tom Hickey said...

You guys discount organization and management skills to zero ... they are just as important as the hands on work...

Organization and management fall under the economic factor "labor." Income is derived from work.

The income from the factor capital comes solely from ownership.

What about portfolio management, you ask.

You either hire a financial adviser or do it yourself. If you do it yourself, it becomes labor and that labor power can be deducted from the return you receive from capital as an owner.

Labor = doing something productive

Capital = owning stuff ("private property")

A capitalist system is about favoring ownership of private property (capital) over producing stuff (labor).

Does anyone see anything fishy about this?

Tom Hickey said...

While I assume that most all of us here share a distain for racism, that is evidence about us rather than whether racism has an evolutionary basis.

Racism almost certain does have an evolutionary bias if only because of the well-supported prominence of kinship in evolution and the aversion for difference. These were evolutionary traits favoring survival in challenging environments, and they persist, perhaps beyond their period of usefulness. This may be in different degrees in various people and groups.

Those groups in which it is strong are deemed racist to one degree or other and this is typified by racial superiority. Other racial groups are as affected by this as much whites, btw. This is revealed in the derogatory expressions of these groups for various characteristics of difference, usually in physical terms.

Moreover, many people, including me, experience some cognitive-affective dissonance over this. Cognitively, kinship affinity and difference adversity make little sense in our contemporary environment and actually result in disadvantage in many ways. However, a residual of those previously important traits persists affectively, so that there is a dissonance between reason and sentiment.

It is also important to recognize that the line between nature (biological evolution) and nurture (cultural evolution) is obscure in many ways. So what may seem "natural" may not be so and it should not be presumed to be without well-founded evidence.

Six said...

"First, that Cochran has some weird ideas on homosexuality is irrelevant, because the book doesn't even discuss nor even mention homosexuality. Lost of very good scientists sometimes have absurd or ridiculous views on certain issues, e.g., Newton believed in astrology.

Secondly, that the idea that there "no hard evidence for his opinions" is utter B.S. The book has meticulous citations of the most recent work in genetics and biology by respected scientists. Chapter 2 is now backed up by recent gene sequencing that shows that humans *do* have at least some Neanderthal genes.

As for the other author Harpending, he probably does have some unsavoury connections which I did know of, but, once again, that fact per se refutes NOTHING in the book, but is just a lazy ad hominem fallacy.

The theories in the book -- backed up by plenty of hard scientific evidence -- stand or fall on their merits, not on the political opinions of the authors. You can totally reject Harpending's politics (as I'm sure everybody here does), but recognise that differential human evolution is true.

Finally, it is the height of absurdity to be lectured on morality by some Marxist/Communist like Magpie, whose Marxist ideology killed possibly up to 100 million people in the 20th century."

LK derides ad hominem arguments in paragraph 3 and utilizes an ad hominem argument against Magpie in paragraph 5. Bravo!

Magpie said...

@ LK (July 24, 2017 at 8:03 AM)

It's really something to be lectured on science by an infantile, semi-literate fanatic whose internet handle is "Lord Keynes".

Read my post "Gravitation: Mysticism or Metaphor?" from 8 May 2014 for an example of "Lord Keynes" self-published, peer reviewed scholarship:
http://aussiemagpie.blogspot.com.au/2014/05/gravitation-mysticism-or-metaphor.html:

Go ahead, judge by yourself the reading ability of "Lord Keynes". Is either that he/she/it/they cannot read or he/she/it/they is/are lying deliberately or a mix of both and then pops up here to depict him/her/it/them-self/selves as shinning light of morality. Give me a break.

The theories in the book are not backed by hard evidence. What evidence they produce is inconclusive. It's not I who says that. Tyler Cowen, that most Marxist of Marxists, did. Plenty just so stories, said Cowen, not me.

You guys don't need to take Cowen's word for that: read Steve Pinker's comment on the Cochran-Harpending paper on Ashkenazim Jews.

---------

Having a delusional blogger like "Lord Keynes" pretending to be an academic it's not enough to ruin the reputation of post Keynesians. To have an association with Nazis will surely do miracles.

Magpie said...

@LK

Incidentally, can your "lordship" assess the pertinence or otherwise of what evidence Cochran and Harpending provide? On top of being Keynes re-incarnate, are you also a biochemist, an evolutionary biologist and paleoanthropologist? Or are you just a charlatan?

What answer is more likely, I wonder.

LK said...

Magpie@July 25, 2017 at 3:00 AM

(1) have you read the book?

(2) are you capable of even engaging with ANY idea or hypothesis from the book?

-----------------

You claim that the book is "not backed by hard evidence."

Well, just run through some of the evidence:

Chapter 2
Cochran and Harpending argued in this chapter that humans outside of Africa have some genes from Neanderthals through interbreeding and this has changed the human genome.

Well, what do you know? The revolution in sequencing of ancient genomes from bones and other remains since 2009 has vindicated Cochran and Harpending:

Lohse, Konrad and Laurent A. F. Frantz. 2014. “Neandertal Admixture in Eurasia Confirmed by Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Three Genomes,” Genetics 196.4: 1241–1251.

Prüfer, K. et al. 2014. “The Complete Genome Sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains,” Nature 505.7481: 43–49.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8vYSiKE3E4

Chapter 3
Cochran and Harpending argued that agriculture has accelerated human evolution. There is much evidence in support of this. For instance, they argued that light skin was probably a post-10,000 BC evolutionary development from the low UV conditions in Eurasia combined with the less nutritious farming diet which lacked Vitamin D.

Turns out this is true:
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-25885519

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/04/how-europeans-evolved-white-skin

Chapters 4 and 6
Cochran and Harpending argued that human farmers were subject to evolutionary changes induced by selective pressures, e.g., brought by new diseases from farming and cities.

The evidence for this was of course already conclusive even before they wrote the book! Even Jared Diamond tacitly admits it. The only difference is Diamond and others are too dishonest to admit this absolutely vindicates the main theses of both Chapters 4 and 6: that differential, regional human evolution after 10,000 BC is a major factor in human history.

It's even admitted tacitly in a documentary based on Guns, Germs, and Steel:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt5g-1DtVL0

-------------------
But of course I expect your only response to this will be some hysterical, insane rant, won't it Magpie?

LK said...

Oh, and the second major hypothesis of Chapter 6 -- that the general evolved ability to have lactose tolerance well into adulthood was a major biological trait of ancient Indo-Europeans but rare amongst the people around them, and so was evolutionary foundation of their extraordinary expanions and conquests -- has also been stunningly confirmed by modern science and sequencing of ancient DNA:

Allentoft, Morten E. et al. 2015. “Population Genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia,” Nature 522 (11 June): 167–172. at p. 171

https://www.nature.com/news/archaeology-the-milk-revolution-1.13471

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/06/nomadic-herders-left-strong-genetic-mark-europeans-and-asians

Magpie said...

My question, your "lordship", was written in clear English. Even yourself could understand it if you read it. I'll repeat it here for your benefit:

Incidentally, can your "lordship" assess the pertinence or otherwise of what evidence Cochran and Harpending provide?

That was my question. Answer it, now, charlatan.

---------

I will not continue this exchange. What I have to say, for all to see, is in the post below. I have nothing else to add.

Tuesday, 25 July 2017
Non-Technical Review of the "10,000 Year Explosion".
http://aussiemagpie.blogspot.com/2017/07/non-technical-review-of-10000-year.html

Go fuck yourself.

LK said...

"Incidentally, can your "lordship" assess the pertinence or otherwise of what evidence Cochran and Harpending provide?"

Yes. The evidence they cite in the book is pertinent, as anybody with half a brain could easily ascertain from reading it, and also, as can easily be seen, from respected mainstream genetics, genomics and biology research, as well as archaeology and history.

Curious how you still can't even actually discuss or refute even 1 hypothesis from the book, isn't it?

Simsalablunder said...

"First, that Cochran has some weird ideas on homosexuality is irrelevant, because the book doesn't even discuss nor even mention homosexuality. Lost of very good scientists sometimes have absurd or ridiculous views on certain issues, e.g., Newton believed in astrology."

No it's not irrelevant. The fact that Cochran thinks he can draw far reaching conclusions from his ass regarding why/how people are what they are like shows that he's not qualified in any sense. And worse, LK tries to defend it even when it is spelled out in front of LKs nose.

That really says enough about what depth of thinking LK possess.

The comparison with Newton shows what BS low level of argument LK has to resort to. Newton is considered unambiguous correct about certain specific things. The same cannot be said about Cochran.

The ONLY thing they have in common is that they were/are wrong on certain things.
And that itself does not in any way prove or give credit to Cochran being right.

What we do know though is that LK will swallow whatever suits LKs prejudices and defend crap with even more crap.

LK said...

Simsalablunder@July 26, 2017 at 5:43 AM

"Newton is considered unambiguous correct about certain specific things. The same cannot be said about Cochran.

False. A number of the major specific theses of Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending have been confirmed by the best, latest research in genetics and sequencing of ancient DNA:

Chapter 2
Chapter 2 argues that humans outside of Africa have some genes from Neanderthals through interbreeding and this has changed the human genome.

The revolution in sequencing of ancient genomes from bones and other remains since 2009 has vindicated Cochran and Harpending:

Lohse, Konrad and Laurent A. F. Frantz. 2014. “Neandertal Admixture in Eurasia Confirmed by Maximum-Likelihood Analysis of Three Genomes,” Genetics 196.4: 1241–1251.

Prüfer, K. et al. 2014. “The Complete Genome Sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains,” Nature 505.7481: 43–49.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8vYSiKE3E4

Chapter 3
Cochran and Harpending argued that agriculture has accelerated human evolution. There is much evidence in support of this. For instance, they argued that light skin was probably a post-10,000 BC evolutionary development from the low UV conditions in Eurasia combined with the less nutritious farming diet which lacked Vitamin D.

Turns out this is true:
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-25885519

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/04/how-europeans-evolved-white-skin

Chapters 4 and 6
Cochran and Harpending argued that human farmers were subject to evolutionary changes induced by selective pressures, e.g., brought by new diseases from farming and cities.

The evidence for this was of course already conclusive even before they wrote the book! Even Jared Diamond tacitly admits it. The only difference is Diamond and others are too dishonest to admit this absolutely vindicates the main theses of both Chapters 4 and 6: that differential, regional human evolution after 10,000 BC is a major factor in human history.

It's even admitted tacitly in a documentary based on Guns, Germs, and Steel:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt5g-1DtVL0

Chapter 6
Chapter 6 argues the general evolved ability to have lactose tolerance well into adulthood was a major biological trait of ancient Indo-Europeans (but rare amongst the people around them) and so was the evolutionary foundation of their extraordinary expansions and conquests. This has also been stunningly confirmed by modern science and sequencing of ancient DNA:

Allentoft, Morten E. et al. 2015. “Population Genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia,” Nature 522 (11 June): 167–172. at p. 171

https://www.nature.com/news/archaeology-the-milk-revolution-1.13471

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/06/nomadic-herders-left-strong-genetic-mark-europeans-and-asians

Simsalablunder said...

"False. A number of the major specific theses of Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending have been confirmed by the best, latest research in genetics and sequencing of ancient DNA"

Great! Now we know that Cochran and Newton have the same track record in being right thanks to LKs splendid ability to wade through research and then draw the correct conclusions.