Short blog on this topic from an educator (who apparently leans stochastic) ... might cut through some of the bibble-babble in the current "Noah Smith" mathematics controversy for some.
Part of understanding variation is understanding the difference between deterministic and probabilistic (stochastic) models.
Deterministic and probabilistic models are not familiar to all teachers of mathematics and statistics,
A deterministic model assumes certainty in all aspects.
Some people have a more deterministic world model than others, contributed to by age, culture, religion, life experience and education.
Deterministic and Probabilistic Models and Thinking