…We're back to the case where the initial stock was zero. Essentially a change in stock over a time scale (tt) is equivalent to a flow, and everything I said about scales and metrics and free parameters in this post follows.See Wikipedia/Stock and Flow/Calculus Interpretation:
I do not understand the resistance to the idea that calculus can handle accounting. There are no definitions of stocks, flows, time intervals or accounting rules that are logically consistent that cannot be represented where a stock is an integral of a flow over a time scale. Attempts to do so just introduce logical inconsistencies (like stocks being equal to flows above).
If the quantity of some stock variable at time is , then the derivative is the flow of changes in the stock. Likewise, the stock at some time t is the integral of the flow from some time when the time was zero until time t.
Information Transfer Economics
Stock flow accounting with calculus